The British Board of Film Classification, the U.K. counterpart to the MPAA Ratings Board, has refused to issue any ratings certificate whatsoever to a Japanese horror film, titled Grotesque , thereby effectively barring it from being shown in Britain. In a statement, BBFC director David Cooke said, "Unlike other recent 'torture'-themed horror works, such as the Saw and Hostel series, Grotesque features minimal narrative or character development and presents the audience with little more than an unrelenting and escalating scenario of humiliation, brutality and sadism. The chief pleasure on offer seems to be in the spectacle of sadism (including sexual sadism) for its own sake." The board said that allowing the film to be shown in Britain would put those viewing it in "risk of harm."