The Twilight star co-authored research paper with computer engineer Bhautik Joshi and the writer David Shapiro, and it was published on Wednesday (18Jan17) via Cornell University's open-access website arXiv.org, an online cache for scientific research papers.

The paper, titled Bringing Impressionism to Life with Neural Style Transfer in Come Swim, investigates how Kristen, 26, used artificial intelligence technology - a technique that uses artificial intelligence to reconfigure an image in the style of another.

A short summary on the ArXiv website reads, "This paper explores the use of this technique in a production setting, applying Neural Style Transfer to redraw key scenes in 'Come Swim' in the style of the impressionistic painting that inspired the film."

According to the paper, it was then used in the opening and closing scenes to apply the style of the painting to the filmed images.

The methodology and process of this reportedly pioneering form of visual effects is described in the three page paper, which elaborates on the difficulties of obtaining a high-quality moving image.

Come Swim debuted at the Sundance Film Festival in Park City, Utah, Thursday (19Jan17) as part of its short films programme. The film, which is part of the Shatterbox Anthology series presented by media organisation Refinery29, was scored by the singer St. Vincent, real name Annie Clark, who has also been romantically linked to the actress.

Speaking at a question and answer session at the New York Film Festival, Kristen revealed how much she had enjoyed moving behind the camera.

"That is the most satisfying thing I have ever done," she said. "As an actor, you're like a little thing that can help everyone feel this, but when it comes from you - it's like validation in the most ultimate. You're not alone."