Earlier in the day, the British rocker, 39, made the trip to The Bowery Mission, a centre which has helped shelter, clothe, feed and provide medical care for those without permanent residences, for more than a century.
While spending time with the Mission's residents, who also receive help with job training and recovery programs, Chris announced he would be staging a benefit gig at Manhattan's Mercury Lounge venue that evening.
Tickets priced at $25 (£20.40) quickly sold out after the musician's announcement, raising $4,300 (£3,510) for the charitable organisation.
At the concert, the Clocks singer performed solo before being joined by two singers whose lives the mission has helped transform, playing songs including Prince's Purple Rain, David Bowie's Life on Mars?, The Beatles' Yesterday and Drake's hit Hotline Bling.
James MACklin, The Bowery Mission's Director of Outreach, was one of those who joined Chris on stage and told Time magazine in a statement: "Chris Martin proved once again the power of one person to make a difference through The Bowery Mission, As the temperatures drop and we serve thousands of lonely people during the holidays, Chris has lifted our spirits today."
The Bowery Mission has also started a Coldplay-backed online fundraising campaign asking benefactors to provide "nutritious meals and life-saving care" to New York City's homeless.